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[2006-09-07] Pechersk
The height that is situated to the south from Kreshatik consists of two districts - Pechersk and Lipki. The main highway of this district Grushevskogo street begins near Kievo-Pecherskaya Lavra, crosses Pechersk and then comes to the European square which is situated at the end of Kreshatik. The Grushevskogo street was built up in 16th century. In the year of 1919 it was called the street of Revolution, from 1934 - Kirova street and in 1991 it was called Grushevskogo in the honor of the first Ukrainian president. The street is interrupted by the Fame Square with hotel "Salut" and The House O [...]
[2006-09-07] Podol
Podol is a part of Kiev city near the Dnepr River; it's an ancient district of craftsmen and fishers. The contemporary arrangement of the streets is the result of the fire, which had happened in 8th June of 1811 and has destroyed all the wooden constructions. There are few descents, which lead from Upper Town to Podol. The most popular is the one called Andreyevskiy. Near on Pokrovskaya stand: Pokrovskaya church dating from the middle of 18th century in Ukrainian baroque style (architect Grigorovitch), the house of famous jeweler Strelbitskiy, belfry of the Kind Nikola church. The center of [...]
[2006-09-07] Golden Gates of Kiev
The remains of the Golden Gates of Kiev one of Ukraine's oldest surviving historical monuments stand in a small public park at the corner of Volodymyrska and Velyka Pidvalna Streets. In the first half of the 11th century, the nomadic Pecheneg tribe began to attack the Ukrainian populace living in the border regions of the Ukrainian state of Kyivan Rus. And, in the year 1036, the Pechenegs approached Kyiv itself, stopping just before the city ramparts. It is said that the Ukrainian sovereign of Kyivan Rus at that time, King Yaroslav the Wise, was extremely distressed at seeing this enemy enca [...]
[2006-09-07] Emergence of the U.S.S.R.
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was established as a federation on Dec. 30, 1922 and the New Economic Policy started which installed the community (called soviets) as owners of land and property. The death of Lenin on Jan. 21, 1924, precipitated an intraparty struggle between Joseph Stalin, general secretary of the party, and Trotsky, who favored swifter socialization at home and fomentation of revolution abroad. Trotsky was dismissed as commissar of war in 1925 and banished from the Soviet Union in 1929. He was murdered in Mexico City on Aug. 21, 1940, by a political agent. Stalin fur [...]
[2006-09-07] Dissolution of the U.S.S.R.
The possible beginning of the fragmentation of the Communist Party and the Soviet era took place when Boris Yeltsin, leader of the Russian S.S.R. who urged faster reform, left the Communist Party along with other radicals. In March 1991, the Soviet people were asked to vote on a referendum on national unity engineered by President Gorbachev. The resultant victory for the federal government was tempered by the separate approval in Russia for the creation of a popularly elected presidency of the Russian republics. The bitter election contest for the Russian presidency, principally between Yeltsi [...]
[2006-09-07] Key data and facts on Russian Federation
President: Vladimir PUTIN (elected March 26, 2000), prior Boris N. Yeltsin (1991 until 31.12.1999) Prime Minister: Mikhail Yefimovich FRADKOV (since 5 March 2004) Next elections: March 2008 Area: 6,592,800 sq mi. (17,075,200 sq km) Population (2002):143,420,309 (July 2005 est., average annual rate of natural decrease: –0.37%); birth rate: 9.8/1000; infant mortality rate: 15.4/1000; density per sq.km.: 8.4; current fertility rate: 1.27 children born/woman (2005 est.) Vladimir Putin Boris N. Yeltsin Capital and largest city : Moscow: city (2005 est.) 10.4 Mio. [...]
[2006-09-07] Russian banknotes
-issue 1961 1 rouble 1961 arms 3 roubles 1961 view of Kremlin 5 roubles 1961 Spasski tower 10 roubles 1961 Lenin 25 roubles 1961 Lenin 50 roubles 1961 Lenin 100 roubles 1961 Lenin -issue 1991 1 rouble 1991 arms 3 roubles 1991 view of Kremlin 5 roubles 1991 Spasski tower 10 roubles 1991 Lenin 50 roubles 1991 Spasski tower 100 roubles 1991 Lenin 100 roubles 1991 Lenin w/guilloche 200 roubles 1991 Lenin/Kremlin 500 roubles 1991 Lenin/Kremlin VF 1000 roubles 1991 Lenin/Kremlin Commonwealth of Independent [...]
[2006-09-07] Consolidation of the Russian State
Under Ivan III (1462–1505) and his successor, Vasily III (1505–33), the Muscovite state expanded, and its rulers became more absolute. The principality of Yaroslavl was annexed in 1463 and Rostov-Suzdal in 1474; Novgorod was conquered in 1478, Tver in 1485, Pskov in 1510, and Ryazan in 1521. The Mari, Yurga, and Komi were subjugated at the end of the 14th cent., and the Pechora and Karelians at the end of the 15th cent. Ivan ceased to pay tribute to the Tatars, and in 1497 he adopted the first code of laws. Having married the niece of the last Byzantine emperor, Ivan considered Moscow the “thi [...]
[2006-09-07] Empire and European Eminence
During the reign (1689–1725) of Peter I (Peter the Great) Russian politics, administration, and culture were altered considerably. However, the trend of increased autocracy and enserfment of peasants was accelerated by the changes. Peter, who assumed (1721) the title of emperor, “Westernized” Russia by using stringent methods to force on the people a series of reforms. He created a regular conscript army and navy. He abolished the patriarchate of Moscow (see Orthodox Eastern Church) and created (1721) the Holy Synod, directly subordinate to the emperor, thus depriving the church of the last ve [...]
[2006-09-07] Reaction, Reform, and Expansion
Liberal ideas gained influence among the Russian aristocracy and educated bourgeoisie despite Alexander I's growing intransigence. They found an outlet in the unsuccessful Decembrist Conspiracy of 1825 (see Decembrists), which sought to prevent the accession of Nicholas I. Under Nicholas (reigned 1825–55), Russia became the most reactionary European power, acting as the “policeman of Europe” in opposing liberalism and helping Austria to quash the Hungarian revolution (1848–49). Russian Poland, nominally a kingdom ruled by the Russian emperor, lost its autonomy after an unsuccessful rising ther [...]
[2006-09-07] World War of 1914 and Revolution
The disastrous and unpopular Russo-Japanese War (1904–5) led to the Revolution of 1905 (see Russian Revolution). Nicholas II was forced to grant a constitution, and a parliament (see duma) was established. Soon, however, the new democratic freedoms were curtailed, as the government again became reactionary. As a result, there was renewed agitation by revolutionaries; the emperor countered with police terror and attempted to channel popular discontent into anti-Semitic outbreaks (see pogrom). At the same time, Piotr Stolypin (prime minister during 1906–11) tried to create a class of independent [...]
[2006-09-07] Post-Soviet Russia
After more than seven decades of Soviet rule, the regime of President Gorbachev marked the end of repressive political controls and permitted nationalist movements to arise in the constituent republics of the USSR. In 1990, Boris Yeltsin and other nationalists and reformers were elected to the Russian parliament; Yeltsin was subsequently chosen Russian president. Under Yeltsin, Russia declared its sovereignty (but not its independence) and began to challenge the central government's authority. In 1991, Yeltsin was reelected in the first popular election for president in the history of the Russ [...]
[2006-09-07] Interesting facts on Gorbachev, Mikhail Sergeyevich
Gorbachev, Mikhail Sergeyevich (mēkhuyēl' sirgā'yuvich gurbuchof') [key], 1931–, Soviet political leader. Born in the agricultural region of Stavropol, Gorbachev studied law at Moscow State Univ., where in 1953 he married a philosophy student, Raisa Maksimovna Titorenko (1932?–99). Returning to Stavropol, he moved gradually upward in the local Communist party. In 1970, he became Stavropol party leader and was elected to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Regarded as a skilled technocrat and a reformer, Gorbachev joined (1978) the Communist party secretariat as agriculture secretary [...]
[2006-09-07] Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), community of independent nations established by a treaty signed at Minsk, Belarus, on Dec. 8, 1991, by the heads of state of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. Between Dec. 8 and Dec. 21, the three original signatories were joined by Armenia, Azerbaijan (its parliament, however, rejected ratifying its membership until 1993), Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. When Georgia joined in 1993 all of the former republics of the USSR except the Baltic states had become members of the CIS. Its headquarters are in Minsk. The o [...]
[2006-09-07] Russian Rulers from 1462 to 1917
(including dates of reign) House of Rurik Ivan III (the Great), 1462–1505 Vasily III, 1505–33 Ivan IV (the Terrible), 1533–84 Feodor I, 1584–98 House of Godunov Boris Godunov, 1598–1605 Feodor II, 1605 Usurpers Dmitri, 1605–6 Vasily IV, 1606–10 Interregnum, 1610–13 House of Romanov Michael, 1613–45 Alexis, 1645–76 Feodor III, 1676–82 Ivan V and Peter I (the Great), 1682–96 Peter I (the Great), 1696–1725 Catherine I, 1725–27 Peter II, 1727–30 Anna, 1730–40 Ivan VI, 1740–41 Elizabeth, 1741–62 Peter III, 1762 C [...]
[2006-09-07] Online Match-Making with Virtual Dates
Martha Lagace Literallymillions of people have found dates through online match-making services, so who says the Internet is isolating? The problem for many users, however, is that initial matches are often imperfect—even frustrating—because the services may shoot Cupid's arrow in the wrong direction. "The current model is artificial and static, and far removed from everyday social interaction," says Jeana H. Frost, who along with Michael I. Norton and Dan Ariely is taking an academic look at online dating and how it can be improved. They describe their results in a new HBS working paper [...]
[2006-09-07] The Period of Expansion: 16th to 18th Century — Ivan Grozny, Peter the Great
Under the famous tsar Ivan The Terrible (Ivan Groznyy) Russia conquered Tartar states along Volga river and acquired access to Caspian sea. The colonization of Siberia was also started. Unfortunately the never lasting wars had the devastating effect on Muscovy. Moreover ancient ruling clan of Rurikovichy born out in the beginning of 17th century. There was a growing instability in Muscovy. Russian elites failed to produce a suitable strategy for the developing of the state, there was no widely accepted leader to become a new tsar. As a result Civil War had started in Muscovy.Period of chaos an [...]
[2006-09-07] The 19th Century: Decembrists, End of the Serfdom, Reforms
After the death of Peter the Great and until the second half of 19th century Russia remained ambitious and aggressive empire. Russian Emperors were focused on expanding the territory and military power of the state. Russian armies fought versus Prussia, Ottoman Empire, France, Persia, Sweden. As the result of these wars Russia joined Crimea, part of Poland, Georgia, Northern Caucuses, Finland, more territories in Siberia. Domestic policy was not so successful. The power of the emperor was still absolute while peasants remained in serfdom and this troubled the economical development. Several we [...]
[2006-09-07] Reading street signs in Russia
Street & Metro Scripts: Currency Exchange Metro Entrance Exit Passage Station Stop Careful Attention Shop Opened Closed Opening Hours Police Street Signs:You may find these words in the maps and schemes. Street Lane Passage Embankment Square Bridge Boulevard Railway Station Church Museum Park Avenue Metro Station [...]
[2006-09-07] Russian language tutorial & online phrasebook
Number Pronounced Hear It! Format: QuickTime WinMedia 1 a'deen listen listen 2 dva listen listen 3 tri listen listen 4 chetyre listen listen 5 pyat' listen listen 6 shest listen listen 7 sem' listen listen 8 vosem' listen listen 9 devyat' listen listen 10 'desyat' listen listen 11 o'dinnatdsat' listen listen 12 dve'nadtsat listen listen 13 tri'nadsat' listen listen 14 che'tyrnadsat' listen listen 15 pyat'nadtsat' listen listen 16 shet'nadtsat' listen listen 17 sem'nadtsat' list [...]
[2006-09-07] Myths and Truths about Russia
New: on President Putin, Privatization, and Khodorkovsky... Sometimes we hear and see so many striking, odd and new things about Russia on TV or in newspapers or from the people we meet, that I think I'm missing something! Really, it turns out I live at such a dangerous place flooded with mafiosi, catastrophes, bombings happening all the time, with deadly cold winters, demolished economy, depressed people that I'm really surprised I'm still alive and living here. The point is that all those things about Russia are either not true or very much exaggerated.Myth: RUSSIA IS FULL OF MAFIA AND IT' [...]
[2006-09-07] The famous Russian people
13th centuryRublev, Andrei - the most famous Russian icons painterDonskoy, Dmitri - the Prince who defeated tatars18th centuryPeter the Great - the person who created a Russian Empire and made it one of the most powerful countriesEkaterina II (Great) - The most successful imperess of Russia, a very powerful and smart women.Lomonosov, Mikhail - a peasant who lived in the north of Russia was so intelligent that he became the greatest scientist in Russia. He worked in physics, chemistry, math, literature and many other areas.Suvorov, Alexander - the best Russian general. In the 18 century he defe [...]
[2006-09-07] Famous Russian Icons
All the color icons (no clip art) Christus_Pantocrator.gif The Lord Pantocrator icon. ( 600 x 768 ) 328 kb. Vladimirskaya_Theotocos.gif Mother of God icon "Vladimirskaya". 12th century icon, Uspensky Cathedral, Moscow Cremlin. (600 x 887), 384 kb. threehands.gif Icon Trojerucica (pron. Troyeruchitza) or Our Lady with three hands This is the most famous icon in the Serbian Monastery Hilandar, Mt.Athos, Greece and there are about 30 wonderful icons in Hilandar. Rich history of this icon is connected with St. John Damascus, famous religious poet and Orthodox Arab, who li [...]
[2006-09-07] UKRAINIAN FAMINE
The dreadful famine that engulfed Ukraine, the northern Caucasus, and the lower Volga River area in 1932-1933 was the result of Joseph Stalin's policy of forced collectivization. The heaviest losses occurred in Ukraine, which had been the most productive agricultural area of the Soviet Union. Stalin was determined to crush all vestiges of Ukrainian nationalism. Thus, the famine was accompanied by a devastating purge of the Ukrainian intelligentsia and the Ukrainian Communist party itself. The famine broke the peasants' will to resist collectivization and left Ukraine politically, socially, and [...]
[2006-09-07] Deportations
Joseph Stalin's forcible resettlement of over 1.5 million people, mostly Muslims, during and after World War II is now viewed by many human rights experts in Russia as one of his most drastic genocidal acts. Volga Germans and seven nationalities of Crimea and the northern Caucasus were deported: the Crimean Tatars, Kalmyks, Chechens, Ingush, Balkars, Karachai, and Meskhetians. Other minorities evicted from the Black Sea coastal region included Bulgarians, Greeks, and Armenians. Resistance to Soviet rule, separatism, and widespread collaboration with the German occupation forces were among th [...]
[2006-09-07] Perestroika
From modest beginnings at the Twenty-Seventh Party Congress in 1986, perestroika, Mikhail Gorbachev's program of economic, political, and social restructuring, became the unintended catalyst for dismantling what had taken nearly three-quarters of a century to erect: the Marxist-Leninist-Stalinist totalitarian state. The world watched in disbelief but with growing admiration as Soviet forces withdrew from Afghanistan, democratic governments overturned Communist regimes in Eastern Europe, Germany was reunited, the Warsaw Pact withered away, and the Cold War came to an abrupt end. In the Sovi [...]
[2006-09-07] The Gulag
The Soviet system of forced labor camps was first established in 1919 under the Cheka, but it was not until the early 1930s that the camp population reached significant numbers. By 1934 the Gulag, or Main Directorate for Corrective Labor Camps, then under the Cheka's successor organization the NKVD, had several million inmates. Prisoners included murderers, thieves, and other common criminals--along with political and religious dissenters. The Gulag, whose camps were located mainly in remote regions of Siberia and the Far North, made significant contributions to the Soviet economy in the perio [...]
[2006-09-07] Chernobyl
In April 1986, Chernobyl' (Chornobyl' in Ukrainian) was an obscure city on the Pripiat' River in north-central Ukraine. Almost incidentally, its name was attached to the V.I. Lenin Nuclear Power Plant located about twenty-five kilometers upstream. On April 26, the city's anonymity vanished forever when, during a test at 1:21 A.M., the No. 4 reactor exploded and released thirty to forty times the radioactivity of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The world first learned of history's worst nuclear accident from Sweden, where abnormal radiation levels were registered at one of [...]
[2006-09-07] The Jewish Antifascist Committee
The Jewish Antifascist Committee (JAC) was formed in Kuibyshev in April 1942. Two Polish Jewish socialists, Henryk Erlich and Viktor Alter (both of whom were later secretly executed), may have proposed the idea to Lavrenti Beria, the head of the NKVD. The organization was meant to serve the interests of Soviet foreign policy and the Soviet military through media propaganda -- as well as through personal contacts with Jews abroad, especially in Britain and the United States, designed to influence public opinion and enlist foreign support for the Soviet war effort. The chairman of the JAC was [...]
[2006-09-07] EARLY COOPERATION: ECONOMIC COOPERATION
During the 1920s and early 1930s, tensions between the Soviet Union and the West eased somewhat, particularly in the area of economic cooperation. Following their consolidation of political power, the Bolsheviks faced the same economic challenge as had the government ministers of the tsarist regime: how to efficiently organize the vast natural and human resources of the Soviet Union. The economic situation was made even more difficult by the immense social and economic dislocation caused by World War I, the revolutions of 1917, and the Civil War of 1918-21. As factories stood idle and famine [...]
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